? 捕捉自然的光韵——关于孙建光的作品_北京油画学会

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捕捉自然的光韵——关于孙建光的作品

来源:原创 作者:周博

作者:周博  (艺术史博士/中央美术学院教师)

    初次看到孙建光的作品时,一种久违了的感觉油然而生,因为我忽然发觉,对大自然的痴迷和依恋在时下的艺术中早已是一种稀有的情感了。
    现代化和城市化的喧嚣使人类迅速的远离了19世纪,那个世纪是欧洲风景画的黄金时代,它属于透纳和康斯泰布尔,属于弗里德里希,也属于我们熟悉的希施金和列维坦。从印象派开始,艺术家们逐渐转向对城市日常生活的关注,转向对画面的形式结构和表现性的探索。比如莫奈、修拉、塞尚、凡高,他们虽然仍旧绘制“风景”,但那些“风景”却不再感念自然,而是一种科学般的试验或内心的独白与表现。而二战后,艺术家们甚至连“风景”都懒得看了,写字楼、马路、商业街的嘈杂覆盖了乡村的宁静,快餐、商品、包装和广告牌代替了森林、村舍和野花。
    对于那些热爱大自然的人来说,这个艺术的变化是一种充满了感伤的历程。世界在变,但孙建光并未因此改变自己的志趣,仍旧执着于对大自然的观察,并希望在自己的笔下能融入一种真实的情愫。他从不愿意把风景画当成一种色彩和形式的搭配训练,因为,在他看来,画家这样做虽然可以不局限于某时某地,绘制世界各地的风光,但这样的作品便完全失去了那种湿漉漉的、带着泥土气息的感情。所以,尽管90年代初,孙建光就曾畅游大江南北,并常用一个画家的眼睛比较各地的光线与色彩差异,但他还是矢志不渝的描绘着家乡哈尔滨的风光和黑龙江边境的森林、农舍和村庄。这种本乡本土的情怀使他的作品具有一种真实性,也就是说,这些风景不是无缘无故的拼凑,而是基于当地的光与色、基于一方水土的写生和创作。
    孙建光是一个色彩画家,他钟情于光与色,而在他的作品中也总会看到一种紫灰色的调子。开始,我是很不理解的,因为我没有他的生活经验,后来才明白这是哈尔滨的光与色,当然,这也是属于黑龙江边疆以及俄国远东地区的。因为那里洒下的阳光是米黄色的,据说哈尔滨就是“一座米黄色的城市”,那种颜色温暖而又抒情,“在冰雪中是火焰,在绿树间是阳光”。而紫罗兰的颜色恰是这种米黄的补色。哦!我这才慌然大悟:这风景虽被画笔截取,可它们却是有根的。
    除了哈尔滨那些具有异国情调的街巷风光,孙建光也眷恋着黑龙江边境那片朴实无华的原野、森林和农庄,他喜欢描绘辛勤劳作的农民、牧人和村舍,描绘在山间林道中发现的一丛灌木和野花,描绘清晨、傍晚或雨后的河畔与土岗。尤其是那些笔调轻松、率意的油画写生小品,清新质朴,细致又不失豪爽,仿佛画笔下面涂抹的不是油彩,而是亲情或友情,时而欢笑、时而低语,在倾诉、在流淌……
    显然,孙建光的油画语言是俄罗斯的,就是我们常说的“苏派”。对于新中国的画家来说,那是二、三代人的风尚和追求,而如今却变成了一种“怀旧”。不过,对于这种被认为“过时的”技法,孙建光却情有独钟,在他看来,这种从他年青时就一直在钻研的色调和笔致是最适合东北的。因为那里的阳光、空气和色彩与俄国的远东基本一致,文化又长期受俄罗斯的熏染。若要描绘东北的原野与森林,恐怕“苏派”油画的笔致和韵味还是最能传情达意的。我同意他的说法,东北毕竟不是江南,适合小桥流水的手法描绘不出黑土地的粗犷与执拗。
    由于生活的变故,如今的孙建光已定居北京,但虽然这样,每年初秋,他总会打点行囊、背起画箱,约几位同道一起回黑龙江写生。诚然,他的艺术是属于那片土地的,属于那里的阳光和空气,属于那里的树木和村庄。

 
Capture the Essence of Nature—— Concerned with oil painting works of Sun Jianguang
 By Bo Zhou
    When I saw Mr. Sun’s paintings for the first time, a familiar feeling grew inside of me as I suddenly realized that, the addiction and attachment to the nature is such a rare feeling nowadays.
 
    The 19th century, which is regarded as the golden age of European landscape paintings, has passed rapidly with the hustle and bustle of human modernization and urbanization. It belongs to Turner and Constable, to Friedrich, and also to our long-familiar Shishkin and Levitan. Artists have gradually shifted their focus from urban daily life to the formal structure and expressiveness of picture ever since Impressionism began. Despite still drawing landscapes, artists such as Monet, Seurat, Cezanne and Van Gogh, showed no more gratitude for nature. It’s more like a scientific experiment or an interior monologue. After the Second World War, artists didn’t even bother to take a look at those “landscapes”. Office premises, super highways and shopping malls have covered the quietness of countryside. Fast food, goods, and posters have replaced the forest, cottages and wild flowers.
 
    For those who love nature, historical change of art is a journey full of sadness. The world is changing, but Sun has never changed his aspiration and remains attached to his observation of nature, willing to express his sincere feeling in his works. To him, landscape never means a simply combination of colors and shapes. In his opinion, artists may draw different sights of the world without being confined to a certain time or a given place, but the moist smells of soil will then be lost. Consequently, although Sun had traveled across the country by the early 90’s comparing different lights and colors from different places as a painter, he persisted in drawing the scenery of his hometown Harbin, forests, cottages and villages along the border lands of Hei Longjiang province. Such feelings as a native give the stamp of truth to his works. That is to say, the views do not exist in his paintings for no reason at all, it’s not a simply combination of different elements but a sketch and creative work based on the native lights and colors, and local scenery.
 
    Sun is a color painter who is in love with light and color and it is not rare to find the tones of purplish grey in his works. I didn’t quite understand this at first because I have never experienced the feelings he had have but later on I learned that this is just the light and color of Harbin and of course, it also belongs to the border area of Hei Longjiang and Russian Far East. It is said that the color of the light poured down there is beige and Harbin is “A City of Beige”. Such a pale brown color could be both warm and lyrical. It’s just like the flame in the ice and the sunlight through the trees. Violet and beige are exactly complementary colors. It was only then that I realized that although drawn down as a part of picture, such unique scenery has its origin.
 
    Besides those exotic streets in Harbin, Sun is also fondly attached to the unadorned wide fields, forests and cottages along the borderland of Hei Longjiang. He likes drawing hard-working farmers, shepherds and cottages, bushes and wild flowers found on the mountain paths, or the riversides and hillocks in the morning and evening or after rains, especially his sketching oil paintings filled with purity, freshness and simplicity, detailed yet imposing and it seems as if Sun drawn down family love or friendship rather than simply oil colors, and as if we could hear the flowing sound of laughter and whisper.
 
    It is obvious that Sun’s painting language is Russian. This is what we called “Su Pai (Russian Style)”. As for the artists of a New China, that is a life-long pursuit of two or three generations but now it’s more like a form of nostalgia. However, for Sun, such a seemingly “old-fashioned” painting technique is exactly what he is after. In his point of view, this sort of tones and touches, which he has been digging into since he was young, fits the Northeast most. The sunlight, air and color there are basically the same to those in the Russian Far East, and the culture there has been deeply influenced as well. To represent the wide fields and the forests in the Northeast, touches and flavors of Sun Pai would be the best choice. I agree with him about that, for the Northeast, after all, is not the Lower Yangzi Region and the little bridges and flowing water there are totally different from the roughness of the Black soil.
 
    Due to changes in his life, Sun has settled in Beijing. Even so, every year in the early fall he would pack his things, take his paint box and go back to Hei Longjiang for sketching with his fellow artists. Indeed, his personal art belongs to the land there, belongs to the sunshine and air there, and belongs to the trees and cottages there as well.
 
Bo Zhou
Doctor of Art History & Teacher of Central Academy of Fine Arts
 
 

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